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6 Surprisingly Effective Treatments for Depression

Click here for the live-updated, interactive version of this infographic, with all the dots labeled.

This is how it happened.

When my amazing CureTogether co-founder Daniel Reda flipped his screen around to show me this infographic, my excitement at how beautiful it looked was quickly replaced by my curiosity for what it showed. I knew exercise, sleep, and therapy were popular and effective treatments for depression.

But a few things surprised me. Fish oil, also popular, showed up as much less effective than I expected. And light therapy, which not many people have tried, was quite effective. Take a look at it for yourself and see if anything surprises you.

Where did this data come from? CureTogether members have been sharing symptoms and treatments for almost 2 years now. For this infographic, information was anonymously analyzed from 944 people in our Depression community.

To thank everyone for sharing with us, we’re releasing this result back to the community for free.

This is the first of a line-up of infographics we’ll be releasing over the coming weeks. Stay tuned and please give your feedback or thoughts on this result in the comments below – or write to me at Please tweet, blog, or pass this along to anyone who can benefit or is interested in Depression. Thank you!

(NOTE: To address a question we got from Twitter, this data applies to our Depression community only, despite the testimonial from a Bipolar patient at the top of the page. Bipolar has its own community here –


For people who want more details on the chart:
- x-axis (popularity) = the fraction of respondents who tried a given treatment
- y-axis (effectiveness) = the average rated effectiveness of a given treatment, Bayes-adjusted for the number of respondents
- Vertical grey line = the average fraction of respondents who tried each treatment
- Horizontal grey line = the average rated effectivenss of all treatments
- Quadrants – Treatments in the upper-left quadrant have below-average usage, but above-average effectiveness, so presumably more people would benefit by trying these. Those in the lower-right quadrant have above-average usage but below-average effectiveness, so presumably more people would benefit by avoiding these.

See other infographics or Take the depression survey

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65 Responses to “6 Surprisingly Effective Treatments for Depression”

  1. Caffeine is a funny one, since it can act as a depressant in large quantities. This is because it increases the release of stress hormones like adrenalin, which can exacerbate anxiety and depression. No wonder it is in the less helpful treatment box.

    This is a great chart. It corresponds well with an older survey of clinical results by the Australian National University (

    I’m surprised that bibliotherapy isn’t in there as an effective treatment. Was it not popular enough to make it on the chart?

  2. [...] Cure Together has just published a very interesting chart on treatments for depression. [...]

  3. I love this. It’s a great reminder isn’t it? Exercise is so good for lifting depression but seeing it in this way, from people using Cure Together is a double whammy of a reminder.

    great work.

    I’m really interested in the analysing of the data too and how giving it back to the community may influence the choices your users make in their own healthcare. Keep us posted :)

  4. Hi James,
    Thanks for the link! It’s great to compare crowdsourced data to previously published clinical results.
    Actually bibliotherapy hasn’t been added yet by anyone at – feel free to add it if you’d like to see what people have to say about it!
    Be well,

  5. Hi Katie,
    Thank you! Interesting question – I wonder how we could measure the impact of sharing this information with our members, and with the general public. Any ideas on the best way to measure this?
    Yes, we’ll keep posting new discoveries here as they come. Stay tuned!
    Be well,

  6. We just got a great comment on Twitter about whether this data was for depression only or also bipolar, since the testimonial at the top of the blog is by a bipolar patient. The answer is yes, this is only depression. Bipolar does have its own section of the site at

    Thanks for the question! I’m @accarmichael on Twitter for any readers who want to follow me.

  7. Great results (the “surprisingly effective” results show the power of tracking data, and being open to “unexpected” results). I also *love* the easy to interpret and super intuitive data visualization. Simple and easy to understand, useful, and enlightening. Thank you!

  8. [...] Cure Together has just published a very interesting chart on treatments for depression. [...]

  9. [...] Cure Together has just published a very interesting chart on treatments for depression. [...]

  10. This is interesting work but I disagree with some of your labelling. Generally the most used treatments tend to be most effective. What is labled as ‘surprisingly effective’ (including one named drug) are really possibly of average effectivess. We have no reason to think that if more people tried them they would be of more effectiveness.

    The main story here is how effective non-drug treatments are. Here is a link to how I would have labled this chart.

  11. This is cool to see – could be used for some good suggestions or to reinforce what one is already doing. I’m not clear on what the unlabeled dots are, though, or how to find out.

  12. Alex and team: great work!
    Here are the immediate effects of the infographic on my thoughts:
    - I’ve had a gut feeling that it’s time to practice meditation and/or attend personal growth workshops again; this reinforces my gut and may move me to action.
    - I’m going to get off my ass and go for a run today
    - Makes me wonder if I shouldn’t self-experiment reducing my caffeine in a controlled and monitored way. I suspect it may help me improve my focus. (Alex: do you think the self-experimentation in your recent publication would be helpful?)
    - Continue my current effective habits (sleep, exercise, meds)

  13. Anne Marie:
    I like your mark-up of the infographic. Can you explain in more detail why the surprisingly effective group could be a result of average effectiveness? At first I thought this may be because individuals for whom the therapy is ineffective no longer use the therapy, therefore reducing it’s popularity. However, if these individuals complete the survey, they would indicate that the therapy is of low effectiveness for them, thereby reducing the average effectiveness.

  14. Alex,
    In risk of preaching to the choir, here’s what I would love to see next. Ultimately, I want to be able to learn what therapies will work best FOR ME, without having to perform self-experiments (which is the best that even my doctor can do today). As an example, perhaps a therapy with low average effectiveness has a bimodal distribution that is highly effective for a very small population—and I happen to be in that small population. Based on this infographic, I would be highly unlikely to try that therapy. Correlating effectiveness with other information individuals know about themselves would help determine whether a therapy applies to a particular individual. Data and results of major clinical studies are often no different. You have a major advantage, however, since it is much easier (cheaper!) to collect additional information from individuals. You may already be thinking along these lines, in which case I am excited to see what’s next :)

  15. Hi Annemarie, thanks for your excellent feedback!

    By ‘surprisingly effective’, we did not mean ‘extremely effective’ or ‘amazingly effective’. We were trying to say that those treatments are of surprising effectiveness in that you would expect them to be more popular than they are, relative to other treatments of similar rated effectiveness – even if, yes, they are not very effective relative to CBT and exercise. It’s also surprising that treatments of lower effectiveness are more popular. And yes, of course they would not become more effective if more people took them.

    That being said, it does suggest that more people should be taking the surprising ones and that fewer people should be taking the popular but less effective ones. Perfect information about the effectiveness of treatments should lead to a high correlation between popularity and effectiveness. Poor correlation is evidence of poor information about what works and what doesn’t.

    Hope that helps! We’ll try to make future infographics clearer to incorporate all this amazing feedback.
    Be well,

  16. Hi Megan,
    Thanks for your question on the unlabeled dots. The other dots are all from – we just labeled the most notable ones that didn’t match the trend.
    Hope that helps,

  17. Hi Jeremy,

    Thank you for your specific and insightful comments! I think the self-experimentation guide you’re referring to is

    I agree with you that long-term, with enough data and sophisticated algorithms, we’ll be able to segment people into sub-categories of conditions and offer more personalized predictions for which treatments are statistically most likely to work effectively with the fewest side effects.

    Thanks, I’m excited to see what’s next too! :)
    Hope you are well,

  18. Hello Alexandra,

    Thank you for getting back to me but I still stand by my point. There are another group of treatments – to the right of the ‘surprisingly effective’ group, which are used my larger numbers (so we can have greater confidence in their effectiveness statistically) and are equally effective. It might make sense to promote that group which I have simplistically referred to as ‘definitely average’. But we can have less confidence that the ‘surprisingly effective’ group are in fact of average effectiveness since less people are using them.The less people that are using a treatment the more uncertainty there is about the effectiveness.
    As such I would have thought that it probably only made sense to look at the treatments which have been used by more than 50% of the group.
    If this analysis had found that there was a group of treatments which seemed to be very effective, but were used by a small percentage of the group, then it would make sense to possibly encourage their use. But this is not what this infographic shows.
    You seem to have a statistician involved in this analysis since you mention Bayesian adjustments so I am surprised that they have not made the same points that I do. By the way, eyeballing this data does show a reasonable correlation between effectiveness and usage already.
    The fact that you have named a particular-branded medication in the group which you say should possibly be tried by more people could leave you open to suggestions of bias as there seems to me to be little justification for this claim. I think it would be important in these circumstances to declare that you do not receive any funding from the company which manufactures this drug.

  19. Yes, great point Anne Marie – we do not receive any funding from pharmaceutical companies and have no vested interests in recommending any particular treatment over another. We simply gather, analyze, and present data contributed by our members in as neutral a way as possible.

    I will let my co-founder Daniel Reda address the rest of your comment, since he has a deeper knowledge of the statistical side of things than I do. I also want to say that we very much appreciate your taking the time to think through how we are presenting data – we have received many helpful suggestions from the voices of Harvard professors, doctors, researchers, and engaged patients; all of which we will try to incorporate into the design of our next infographic.

    Thanks everyone! :)
    Be well,

  20. Jeremy Johnson:

    You asked whether individuals using treatments less because they are less effective would affect average effectiveness on the chart.

    The quick answer is no.

    What we mean by popularity is not how popular a treatment is for an average individual. We literally mean: if you ask 100 people whether they have ever tried the treatment, how many will say yes? How well it worked for each individual will not factor in to the popularity number on the chart. Similarly, treatments people love would not be pushed to the right just because they worked well. I hope that’s clear.

  21. Anne Marie:

    Your central point seems to be that we ought to have less confidence in treatments that were tried by a smaller fraction of respondents (i.e. dots toward the left side of the chart) and that therefore these treatments are probably not as effective as the chart suggests.

    A good analogy of your point is if you’re shopping at and are comparing two products, one of which has an average rating of 4.9 but only 5 ratings and the other has an average rating of 4.7 but has 40 ratings. It may appear that the 4.9 product has a higher rating, but it may have just been lucky to get a few positive ratings and if we waited until it had 40 ratings of its own, it might end up at 4.3.

    We have actually factored this in and that is what we meant by our Bayesian adjustment. The best way to explain is to show you the unadjusted chart next to the adjusted one. I’ve uploaded an image that shows this at (note that the dots are unlabeled and the image is a few days newer and has a bit more data, so some of the dots may have shifted slightly).

    You can see that, prior to adjustment (chart on the left), some treatments that are tried by only a small fraction of people (e.g. light therapy with 20% popularity and over 0.9 effectiveness) initially appear to have extraordinary efficacy – even more than CBT and exercise!

    But when we adjust for the fact that fewer people have responded for those treatments (and that we therefore have less confidence in the rating), it preferentially brings the points on the left side of the chart toward the center (more formally, toward the average effectiveness of all the treatments for that condition). You can see this correction in the right chart, which is the one we originally published.

    And even after this adjustment, those treatments we labeled as “surprisingly effective” are above average in effectiveness and below average in popularity.

    So you would be absolutely correct (and impressively perceptive) if what we had published was the uncorrected data – but it is not, as I hope I have adequately explained.

  22. [...] impact will the rise of open source health research platforms such as CureTogether, with the rich member-reported outcome data it is collating and beginning to redistribute, have upon the process-driven, rigidly monological [...]

  23. Rajiv Mehta Says:

    Hi Alex,

    That’s an interesting and I imagine quite useful graphic.

    I’ve been getting ever more skeptical of the use of statistics in understanding the human condition (I’ve been reading “The Black Swan: The impact of the highly improbable” lately), but I’m not at all yet ready to dispense with the notion of learning from other people’s experiences. So, I’m all for efforts such as this table, that help us to make sense of tons of disparate data.

    I didn’t understand the niceties of the issues raised by Anne Marie or Daniel’s response. But, as a lay person, I wonder if the y-axis could simply be “Rated Effectiveness”, without any fancy Bayesian adjustments. I think we can see for ourselves that treatment XYZ has been rated as highly-effective but only a few people have tried it, and make up our own minds whether it is something we’d like to try. As Jeremy Johnson commented, we (individuals) really care about what might work FOR ME. We’d like to know if something has proved very effective for even a small group of people, if those people are somehow like me. So, it would be nice if you could provide any insights into what was common amongst the people involved for all the treatments that were rated highly effective.

  24. Very interesting presentation of data from your sample.

    A couple of thoughts:

    1.) What about the issue of depression severity? More ill patients generally get exposed to more aggressive treatment, i.e. medication. More severe illness is less likely to respond to any treatment.
    2.) How did this control for people receiving multiple types of treatment simultaneously?

  25. Hi Rajiv,

    Thank you for your comment! To clarify, the effectiveness was adjusted to prevent overestimating a treatment’s effectiveness given its small sample size – for example if treatment A was rated very highly by only 10 people, that’s worth less weight than treatment B that was rated very highly by 100 people. Does that make sense?

    Anyway, I definitely agree with your idea to increasingly personalize the information, in which case seeing what 10 people LIKE YOU tried without any adjustments would be very interesting. As we collect more data, we can dive deeper into this kind of analysis.

    Be well,

  26. Hi Bill,

    Excellent questions! The answer to both of these is that we’re still at an early stage in how much data we have. As we start hearing from more patients and building a larger dataset, we can incorporate condition severity, number of simultaneous treatments, diagnostic tests, lab results, and biometric tracking to give back a more granular and personalized to each individual.

    Thank you for your thoughts!

  27. [...] by George Van Antwerp in Consumerism, Healthcare, Social Media, Technology. trackback I just came upon this infographic based on information from almost 1,000 people in the depression community on [...]

  28. This is very useful information. “Evidence based” is a keyword these days and having this kind of evidence helps us think about what is sought out/effective in a different way. Thanks for leading me here! I’ll point it out to my clients, most of who live with some kind of depression.

  29. Thank you, Rosalind! I’m glad to hear you find it helpful and thought-provoking, and I hope it helps your clients as well.
    Be well,

  30. [...] treatments and experiences. Now using the profiles of 944 members dealing with depression, they created this infographics that shows a few surprisingly effective treatments for [...]

  31. This is a great graphic – very clear! It parallels what my doctor told me. (He said, rather humorously, that the sure recipe for enhancing depression was to stay sedentary, in a dark room, alone, and listen to Leonard Cohen songs!)

    I’m surprised that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is not on here; there are certainly evaluations showing its effectiveness; it also worked for me.

    One of my own favorites is gardening – I suspect it’s effective because it combines exercise and light, and then throws in flowers for good measure.

  32. Thanks Nicolette! CBT is actually on there, just unlabeled – it’s the dot above and to the left of meditation. Yes, gardening would be a great treatment to add – feel free to add it here:

    Be well,
    Alexandra :)

  33. Thanks for sharing this fascinating infographic on treatments for depression. It is inspiring to see how the sharing of data combined with infographics can be used to reveal the efficacy and popularity of treatments. There is a lot we can learn by sharing data and presenting it through beautiful, intuitive designs. One of our feature stories Decoding Data ( looks at how data visualization can be an incredibly powerful tool for interpreting large quantities of shared information. We think data visualization coupled with crowdsourced data has great potential to transform the way we interpret and respond to health information.

  34. Thank you for sharing your beautiful infographics as well!

    We have also made an interactive version of this depression infographic, hot off the press –

  35. [...] 6 Surprisingly Effective Treatments for Depression. Categories: Culture, Science Tags: Depression, Health, infographics Previous post: The World Cup Predicted Leave a Comment [...]

  36. Although I’m Australian, I don’t rate the Australian National University’s evaluator highly at all, due to its age, limited coverage, and the fact that it gives antidepressants a maximal 3, out of 3 star rating; see:

  37. On checking out the amount of vitamin D3 used as a basis for rating, I find it is only 4000IU daily.

    Dr. J. Cannell, at is now recommending 10,000 iu of vitamin D3, ( NOT VITAMIN D2! ) daily, for depressed people.

    The Vitamin D Newsletter: April 21, 2010: More letters: “Vitamin D deficiency is but one cause of major depression; there are lots of others. However, I now recommend that anyone struggling with depression should take at least 10,000 IU /day with frequent 25(OH)D blood tests to assure levels of at least 100 ng/ml and to monitor for toxicity”.

    He advises that the cofactors required for optimal absorption and utilisation are good levels of magnesium, zinc, boron, and vitamin K2. 59% of Americans are deficient in vitamin D3.

    Those with the lowest levels are 11 times more likely to be depressed ( – Dr. Mercola recommends 5000IU – 8000IU daily for most healthy people, if getting minimal vitamin D3 through the action of sunlight on exposed skin, although some people need much more; view ).

    A deficiency in calcium can also cause depression; vitamin D3 is needed so it is utilised, and good levels of magnesium ensures it is deposited on bones, (preferably with some weight bearing exercise) where it belongs, rather than in blood vessels.

  38. [...] natrafiłam na ciekawy artykuł na temat skutecznych sposobów leczenia depresji i ten artykuł skłonił mnie do przemyśleń.  Zacznijmy od tego, z czego bierze się depresja?  [...]

  39. So basically, getting more sunlight is what works best?

  40. Anne Marie Cunningham Says:

    I like the fully labelled infographic a lot more. Thanks.

  41. [...] Published The Collective Well » Blog Archive » 6 Surprisingly Effective Treatments for Depression. [...]

  42. Cath of Canberra Says:

    I’d ignore anything Mercola says; he’s a well known quack with a vitamin D fetish who believes cancer is a fungus because.. wait for it .. it’s white! Also that vaccines are evil and homeopathy works.

    srsly. Search respectfulinsolence for mercola.

  43. whats with the unnamed dots?

  44. Thanks for your comment, Colin! The interactive version of the graphic is here – – you can hover over each dot to see what it is.
    Be well,

  45. [...] The Collective Well » Blog Archive » 6 Surprisingly Effective Treatments for Depression. var a2a_config = a2a_config || {}; a2a_config.linkname="6 Surprisingly Effective Treatments for Depression"; a2a_config.linkurl=""; [...]

  46. [...] What Alleviates Depression? Not the most upbeat design – perhaps intentionally? – but an interesting subject and interesting way to research the data. [...]

  47. Is there an interactive version of the depression chart or one that labels all the dots? For instance, the second most effective treatment, rated so by 65% and used by less than half, is not labeled. Those of us who need to leave no stone unturned in a search for help would like to have these dots labeled in the chart or at least in a legend/sidebar. Thank you.

  48. Hi Keskasay,

    Yes, the interactive version is here –


  49. Awesome. Crazy how exercise is the greatest remedy, but can be the hardest thing to do!


  51. Thanks Chris! And to answer your question, Warner, you can see the latest interactive version of the chart here, where you can hover over all the dots to see what they are –


  52. I think fish oil should be rephrased, as fish-oil is merely one way consuming omega-oils in a balanced fashion. Flax-seed oil, various algae oils (which is where the fish get their omegas from), and chia seeds are some of the ways people can balance their omega intake without fish oil.

  53. Nicolas Luna Hisano Says:

    hi i used chocolate
    but the best for me is the sudarshan kriya and silva method ….
    excellent post

  54. I love that exercise gets the highest and most popular rating of all the treatments. Is it even a secret anymore?

    Keep on rocking in the free world!

  55. While presenting bayes-adjusted factors is good, it would still be nice to see error bars on these dots. I’m not sure how one does bayes-adjusted errors, but at the very least you could present the pre-bayes 95% confidence intervals as they originally were, with the dots in their bayes-adjusted positions (ie, no longer in the middle of the error bars, but shifted toward the mean). This would give us some sense of how different the more and less effective treatments really were (pace all the more serious problems with treatment self-selection).

  56. Colin Mackie Says:

    Hi, I love this infographic! What an excellent resource for anyone suffering from this dreadful, dreadful illness. But I am curious about a few things. First, I’m not surprised to see that exercise is the most popular and most effective remedy, but I would like to know which types of exercise have worked the best. I’ve tried everything from the very gentle Feldenkrais Method to intense and rather bruising martial arts like Muay Thai and Jiu Jitsu. In my experience gentle exercise has been helpful while intense exercise has just left me anxious, and because I find that anxiety feeds my depression I don’t want to be anxious.

    I guess I have the same question about another practice I find to be excellent: meditation. What type of meditation is effective? I mean, I know what’s effective for me, but someone looking at the infographic might be confused because it’s identified twice. Once simply as “meditation” and again, less popularly and less effectively, as “mindful meditation.” It would be great if that could be clarified because, believe me, there’s a world of difference between a Vipassana retreat and an eight week MBSR program run out of the local hospital. In my experience, Vipassana is not really suitable for someone who is still within the clutches of the illness. Save that trip for when you’ve recovered.

    Lastly, I’m confused about the position occupied by SSRI’s. As a group, they’re popular and effective. Individually – as Paxil, Zoloft, Prozac, Celexa, Lexapro – they don’t seem to be popular or effective. How does that work?

    I’m probably just being a pain in the ass. This really is wonderful work and you’re to be commended for making it available.

  57. Hi Colin,
    Thank you for your comment! I’m very impressed at the level of self-knowledge you have, and appreciate you sharing your helpful insights. You’re right that as CureTogether grows, it would be great to be able to get into more specific examples of exercise, meditation, drugs, etc, and see how different categories compare to each other.
    Personally, I find both intense and gentle exercise to be helpful, depending on the time of day and my mood. I think as people develop their own intuition and understanding about their specific bodies, they can tailor exercise and lifestyle programs to how they are feeling in each moment or day, pulling out the right tool from the treatment toolbox to fit the situation.
    As for the SSRI’s, it’s a great question, and one that we noticed too – we’re running some queries to see if we can figure out what’s happening there.
    Thanks again and welcome to the community!
    Alex :)

  58. [...] crowd-tracking efforts are happening in health, for conditions like asthma and depression.  What if more kinds of self-tracking data were aggregated and analyzed? Wouldn’t the [...]

  59. [...] Research Findings found that exercise is one of the most effective depression treatments. A shocker I know. [...]

  60. Good treatment

  61. Thank you for presenting this information. As a sufferer from depression I learned something new and useful. However, I have some criticisms of how you have presented it. I hope you don’t mind me putting in my oar. Steel yourself for some frank complaints.

    The whole thing is not simple or efficient or clear. We depressed Stumblers do not have much patience you know.

    It is very confusing to be told what you thought would be popular. No offence, but we don’t care. We just want to know what works. Leave us to be surprised or not about the popularity of something. It would be better to make the explanatory text relevant and helpful.

    The infographic may look beautiful to you, but it is too complicated and difficult to understand. It took me quite a while to figure it out, and I’m trained in mathematics. The orange and green rectangles look like part of the graph at first, and just mess with my head. The cut-off points should have been left out in my opinion. As it is, they seem arbitrary, and chosen by you, and they just confuse everything. I think you should forget about “quadrants”. I can’t even be bothered to try and understand most of the key at the bottom of the page. Oh – I just did – and I wish you hadn’t.

    Even now I think I have it figured out, I am still unwilling to refer to it for advice. It is just too crazy to look at. This is a shame because I am sure that I could learn more from it.

    You can tell I don’t have a job, can’t you? Time on the old hands. I do care about this matter though, because the information is important to some people.

  62. [...] as a coach I help people with. I was searching around and a good friend of mine showed me this site Cure Together and it talks about different treatments for depression. The most successful treatment on that [...]

  63. This depression topic is a thorny one because it affects most of us some of the time and too many of us reach for the wrong “cures”.

    Recently, several well-known doctors, like Drs. Hyman and Weil, have underscored how ineffective antidepressant pharmaceuticals are for treating mild to moderate depression.

    Some studies they’re no more effective than placebos.

    So, Dr. Weil wants people to use useful strategies instead of antidepressants, and has written a book on the topic which is reviewed in “Dr. Weil’s Four Alternatives to Antidepressant Drugs”

    I’ve certainly had a few battles with mild depression. Enough to take a good hard look at it. A lot of reading. Some experimentation. Wrote this on the subject: “A Little Depressed? 10 Actions That Help Me”

    I think that the key thing to discover is what mechanism, thought, emotion, action, person will help you take the right action to alleviate depression when you’re in it.

    Because knowing what to do is worthless unless you can get yourself to do it, and often times the most notable fact about being depressed is that you can’t take the step you know you need to vanquish it.


  64. [...] has a chart that shows effectiveness of various depression treatments. Meditation, talk therapy, sleep, and exercise are the most popular and effective treatments. #1 most effective cure for depression – EXERCISE. [...]

  65. [...] is equally amazing is the data view provided here. The site charted treatments on a graph representing effectiveness on one axis and popularity on [...]

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